A Dictionary of Computer Science by Andrew Butterfield, Gerard Ekembe Ngondi, Anne Kerr PDF

By Andrew Butterfield, Gerard Ekembe Ngondi, Anne Kerr

ISBN-10: 0199688974

ISBN-13: 9780199688975

Formerly named A Dictionary of Computing, this bestselling dictionary has been renamed A Dictionary of desktop Science, and completely revised by means of a workforce of machine experts, making it the main up to date and authoritative advisor to computing to be had. Containing over 6,500 entries and with elevated insurance of multimedia, laptop purposes, networking, and private laptop technological know-how, it's a complete reference paintings encompassing all facets of the topic and is as worthwhile for domestic and place of work clients because it is necessary for college kids of machine technological know-how.

Terms are outlined in a jargon-free and concise demeanour with worthy examples the place suitable. The dictionary includes nearly one hundred fifty new entries together with cloud computing, cross-site scripting, iPad, semantic attack, smartphone, and virtual studying environment. advised net hyperlinks for plenty of entries, obtainable through the Dictionary of laptop Science significant other web site, offer important extra info and the appendices comprise helpful assets corresponding to universal domains, dossier extensions, and the Greek alphabet.

This dictionary is acceptable for an individual who makes use of pcs, and is perfect for college students of desktop technological know-how and the similar fields of IT, maths, physics, media communications, digital engineering, and traditional sciences.

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If you are unable to type these characters, please browse for your term using the Alphabetical List of Entries. Alphabetical List of Entries A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 10 Base 2 10 Base 5 10 Base FX 10/100/1000 Base-T 8421 code 419 fraud 4GL 7-Zip A* algorithm ABC abduction abelian group ABI ablative abnormal termination ABONE abort absolute address absolute code absolute link absolute path absolute URL absolute value absorption laws abstract computability theory abstract data type abstract family of languages abstraction abstract machine abstract reduction system abstract specification A-buffer AC97 accelerated graphics port acceleration time accelerator key accent-sensitive accept acceptable use policy acceptance testing access Access access control access method access path access point access provider access rights access time access vector account accounting file accumulator accuracy ACE ACIA ACID ACK Ackermann benchmark Ackermann function acknowledgment ACM acoustic coupler acoustic delay line acoustic memory Acrobat action selection active Active Directory active filter active-matrix LCD Active Server Pages active star active transition active vision active widget ActiveX activity network actor language actors actual parameter actuator acyclic graph Ada Ada 95 Adams methods adaptive channel allocation adaptive compression adaptive-control system adaptive interface adaptive maintenance adaptive meshing adaptive process adaptive quadrature adaptive ray tracing ADC ADCCP A/D converter adder add-in card address addressability addressable location address book address bus address calculation sorting address format addressing addressing schemes address mapping address mark address register address-relative Address Resolution Protocol address space address table sorting add–subtract time adequacy theorem ad hoc network adjacency list adjacency matrix adjacency structure Adobe Reader ADP ADSL Advanced Encryption Standard advance-fee fraud adware AES affine mapping AFIPS AFL agenda mechanism agent agile methods AGP AGV AI Aitken’s Δ2 process AIX ALARP principle aleph null alert box algebra algebraic abstract data type algebraic language algebraic model algebraic semantics algebraic specification algebraic structure algebraic surface algebraic symbol manipulation language algebraic system algebra system Algol algorithm algorithm analysis algorithm efficiency algorithmic language alias aliasing allocation routine Alpha AXP alphabet alphabetic code alpha buffer alphamosaic alphanumeric character alphanumeric code alpha test Alt key ALU ambient computing ambient light ambiguous grammar amplitude amplitude modulation amplitude quantization analogue computer analogue signal analogue-to-digital converter analysis of variance Analytical Engine analyser ancestor AND gate AND operation AND/OR graph Andreessen, Marc Android animation ANN annotation anonymization anonymous FTP anorak ANOVA ANSI anti-aliasing anti-pattern anti-static precautions antisymmetric relation anti-virus program any-time algorithms AOL Apache APA mode API APL APP Apple Inc.

How to search for terms in A Dictionary of Computer Science To find an entry in this e-book you can: • Browse the Alphabetical List of Entries and select the entry you would like to view or • Use your Search function to be taken to a complete list of references to your search term in the Dictionary ◦ If your search term has its own entry, it will usually be listed at the top of your results ◦ In cases where your search term appears in more than one entry heading, the results will be listed alphabetically A note on special characters While most e-readers can display special characters (such as é and â), many cannot search for words containing them, unless the special characters themselves are typed into the search box.

C. signalling DCT DCVS DDC DDCMP DDE DDL DDoS DDP DDS DEA deadlock deadly embrace debit/credit benchmark debouncing de Bruijn diagram debugging debug tool DEC decade counter decal de Casteljau algorithm decidable problem decidable set decision gate decision problem decision procedure decision support system decision surface decision table decision tree declaration declarative languages DECnet decoder decoder/demultiplexer decoder/driver decoder error decoding decollator decompiler decomposition decompression deconvolution decryption dedicated dedicated mode deduction deductive apparatus Deep Blue deep case deep structure Deep Thought default default rules defect skipping deferral deferred addressing deferred approach to the limit definition deflation defrag defragmentation degree degree of precision degrees of freedom Dekker’s algorithm Delaunay triangulation delay differential equations delayed branch delay line delay-power product delete delimiter Dell delta PCM demand paging demand reading, writing Demilitarized Zone demodulator demon de Morgan’s laws demultiplexer dendrogram denial denial of service denotational semantics density denumerable set deposit depth depth-balanced depth buffer depth cueing depth-first search deque derivation sequence derivation tree derivative DES descendant descriptor design database design pattern design review desktop desktop publishing destructive read determinant deterministic deterministic language deterministic Turing machine DEUCE developer development life cycle device device coordinates device driver DFD D flip-flop DFT DHCP dhrystone benchmark DHTML diagnostic routine diagonalization diagonal matrix diagrammatic technique dialler dialogue box dialogue management dictionary diff Difference Engine difference equations differential backup differential dump differential equations differential PCM diffuse reflection diffusion address digital digital audio tape digital camera digital cassette digital certificate digital circuit digital computer digital copier digital data storage digital data transmission digital design digital design language Digital Equipment Corporation digital filtering digital halftone digital image digital logic digital signal digital signal processing digital signature digital sorting digital system digital-to-analogue converter digital versatile disk digital video digital video disk digital video interactive digital video interface digitization digitizer digraph Dijkstra, Edsger Dijkstra’s algorithm DIL DIL switch dimension diminished radix complement diminishing increment sort DIMM DIN connector dingbat diode diode-transistor logic DIP direct-access storage device direct addressing direct-coupled machines direct data entry direct digital control directed graph directed set directed tree direction keys directive direct memory access directory directory services directory tree direct product DirectX Dirichlet region disable disarm disassembler disc disconnected graph discourse understanding discrete and continuous systems discrete channel discrete component discrete cosine transform discrete event simulation discrete Fourier transform discrete mathematics discrete process control discrete signal discrete source discrete structure discrete system discretionary access control discretization discretization error discriminant analysis disjoint disjunction disjunctive normal form disk disk array disk cache disk cartridge disk drive diskette disk format disk pack disk stack disk striping disk-to-plate disk unit dispatcher dispersion displacement mapping display Display Port display processor Distiller distributed array processor distributed artificial intelligence distributed computing environment Distributed Concurrent Versions System distributed database distributed denial of service distributed file system distributed problem solving distributed processing distributed queue dual bus distributed system distribution distribution counting sort distributive lattice distributive laws dithered colour dithering dither noise diverse programming divide and conquer sorting divided difference divider DLL DMA DME DML DMZ DNS DNS server docking station document documentation document image processing Document Object Model document processing document reader document scanner document sorter document type definition do loop DOL system DOM domain domain knowledge domain modelling domain name server domain name system domain theory dominator dongle do-nothing instruction don’t care dope vector DOS DOS box dot com dot diffusion dot matrix printer double buffering double click double complement double-density recording double-length arithmetic double negation double precision doubly linked list do-while loop down downline download down operation downsizing downtime DP DPCM dpi DQDB drag drag and drop DRAM draughts-playing programs DRAW DRCS DRDW drive driver drop-down menu drop-in drop-on-demand inkjet printer drop-out drum plotter drum printer drum scanner dry run DSL DSM DSP DSPACE DSS DTD DTE DTIME DTL DTP D-type flip-flop dual dual attach dual core dual in-line package duality dual port memory dual processor dummy instruction dump dump check dump point duplex duty cycle DVD DVI dyadic dyadic operation Dyck language dye-polymer media dynamic dynamic allocation dynamic data structure Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol dynamic HTML dynamic link library dynamic logic dynamic memory dynamic programming dynamic testing dynamic web page EAN EAPROM EAROM Easter egg EBCDIC EBNF e-book e-business ECB ECBS echo echo check echoing echo suppression ECL ECMA International ECMAScript e-commerce edge edge board edge card edge connector edge detector edge-triggered flip-flop EDI EDIFACT edit editor Edmonds’ algorithm EDP EDS EDSAC EDVAC EEPROM EEROM effective address effective computability effective enumeration effective procedure EFT EFTPOS EFTS egoless programming EIA EIDE Eiffel eigenfunctions eigenvalue problems eigenvectors EIR EISA elapsed time e-learning electrographic printer electroluminescent display electromagnetic beam deflection electromagnetic compatibility electronic electronic blackboard electronic data interchange electronic data processing electronic filing electronic funds transfer system electronic graffiti electronic learning electronic mail electronic organizer electronic point-of-sale system electronic publishing electronic signature electrophotographic printer electrosensitive printer electrostatic beam deflection electrostatic printer electrostatic storage device electrothermal printer element Ellison, Larry ELSE rule EMACS email EMAS embedded computer embedded servo embedding EMC EMI emittance texture emitter-coupled logic e-money emoticon empty list empty medium empty set empty string EMS memory emulation emulator enable enable pulse encapsulated PostScript encapsulation encoder encoding encryption end-around-carry end-around shift endomorphism endorder traversal end-to-end control end-to-end encryption energizer engine engineering of computer-based systems enhanced small-device interface ENIAC enterprise modelling enterprise resource planning enterprise server entity entity-relationship-attribute diagram, model entropy entry point entry time enumeration enumeration type environment environment mapping EOB EOD EOF EOJ EOR EOT EOT marker epimorphism epistemology EPLD epoch EPOS EPPT EPROM EPS EPSF EPSI equation equational logic equational specification equational term rewriting system equipotent equivalence equivalence class equivalence gate equivalence relation equivalent binary digits equivalent trees ERA diagram ERA model erasable programmable logic device erasable PROM erase head eraser erasure channel ergodic source ergonomics Erlang ERP error error analysis error bound error burst error control error-correcting code error correction error-detecting code error detection error diagnostics error estimate error handling error-indicating recording error management error message error propagation error rate error recovery error routine error seeding escape character escape sequence escrow ESD ESDI ESF coating ESPRIT ESSI ETB Ether Ethernet Ethernet card e-ticket ETX/ACK Euclidean norm Euclid’s algorithm Eudora EUI-48 EUI-64 Euler cycle Euler operators Euler’s formula Euler’s method EUREKA European Article Numbering code evaluation function even parity event-driven event input event tree analysis evolutionary programming exa- exbi- Excel exception exception handling excess-3 code excess factor excess-n notation exchangeable disk store exchange selection exclusive-NOR gate exclusive-OR gate exclusive-OR operation executables execute execute phase execute step execution states execution time executive program executive state exerciser exhaustive search existential quantifier exit point EXNOR gate EXOR gate expanded memory expansion expansion card expansion slot expectation experimental design expert systems explicit address exploratory data analysis exponent exponentially bounded algorithm exponential waveform exponentiation export list exposed terminal problem ExpressCard expression expression of requirements extended addressing extended ASCII extended BNF extended memory extended precision extensibility extensible addressing extensible language extensible stylesheet language extension extension field Exterior Gateway Protocol external device external fragmentation external interrupt external node external path length external schema external sorting external storage extranet extrapolation extrapolation method extrinsic semiconductor Facebook facet facial animation facilities management facsimile factorable code factor analysis factorial designs FADEC Fagan inspection fail-safe fail-soft failure failure modes failure rate failure recovery fairness fair surface design fallback false position method fan-in Fano coding Fano decoding fan-out FAQ farm FAST Fast Ethernet fast Fourier transform FAT father file fault fault detection fault diagnosis fault-tolerant system fault tree analysis fax fax card FCC FDDI F distribution FDM feasibility study feature detection feature modelling feed feedback feedback queue feedback register feed-forward register Feistel cipher Ferranti Mark I ferrite ferroelectric display FET fetch-execute cycle fetch protect FF FFT Fibre Channel fibre distributed data interface fibre optics Fibonacci search Fibonacci series fiche field field bus field-effect transistor field-programmable devices FIFO fifth generation file file activity file allocation table file descriptor file directory file editing file extension file format file integrity file locking file maintenance file management file management system file manager file mark file name file organization file protection file recovery file server file system file transfer file transfer protocol file updating fill area primitive fill character filling film scanner filter filtering filtering bridge find find and change finite automaton finite-difference method finite-element analysis finite-element method finite field finite-length arithmetic finite-model theory finite sequence finite set finite-state automaton FIPS Fire codes Firefox firewall FireWire firing rule firmware FIRST first-class type first fit first generation first in first out first normal form first-order logic first-order term fixed-base system fixed disk drive fixed head fixed-length arithmetic fixed-length code fixed point fixed-point notation fixed-point theorem fixed-radix system fixed space fixed word length computer flag flame flash memory flat addressing flatbed plotter flatbed scanner flat file model flat pack flat-panel display flat screen flexible array flexible disk cartridge flexible manufacturing system flexible PCB flicker flip-flop float floating-point notation floating-point operation flood-fill floor flop floppy disk floppy-disk drive flops floptical disk flowchart flow control Floyd method fluid logic Flynn’s classification FM FMECA FMS FMV folding font font cartridge footprint foreground processing foreign key forest for loop form formal language formal language theory formal logic formal method formal parameter formal specification formal system formal verification formant format format string bug formatter form factor form feed form letter form overlay form stop Forth Fortran forum forward bias forward chaining forward error correction forward error recovery forward pruning Fourier analysis Fourier descriptors Fourier series Fourier transform four Russians algorithm fourth generation fourth-generation language FP FPA FPGA FPLA FQDN fractal fractal image compression fraction fractional-level zooming fractional part fractional replication fragmentation frame frame buffer frame grabber frameless rendering frame relay frames framework Framework Programme Framework Programmes, I–VII FranzLisp Fredholm integral equation freedom of information free list free monoid free occurrence free semigroup Free Software Foundation free-space list free text retrieval free variable freeware freeze-frame frequency frequency distribution frequency divider frequency division multiplexing frequency domain frequency function frequency modulation frequency shift keying Fresnel factor friction drive front end front-end processor FSA FSF FSK FTAM FTFL code FTP FTVL code Fujitsu full adder full backup full custom full duplex full-motion video full subtractor full text retrieval full tree function functional cohesion functional dependency functional design functional languages functional partitioning functional specification functional testing functional unit function key function point analysis functor fuser fusible link fuzzy control fuzzy logic FYI G Galerkin’s method gallium arsenide devices Galois field games console games port game theory game tree Gane–Sarson Gantt chart gap theorem garbage garbage collection garbage in garbage out gate gate array Gates, Bill gateway gather write Gaussian distribution Gaussian elimination Gaussian noise Gaussian quadrature GB Gbps GBS method Gbyte GCD GCR GDI geek gender bender generalized additive models generalized Church–Turing thesis generalized linear model generalized sequential machine general-purpose computer general-purpose interface bus general recursive function generating polynomial generations generative grammar generator generator matrix generic generic compaction generics genetic algorithm genetic programming geodesic geodesic curves geographic information system geometric modeller gesture Gflops gibi- GIF giga- Gigabit Ethernet GIGO Gilbert–Varshamov bound GINO–F GIS Git GKS glass-box testing glass teletype glitch global global discretization error global illumination global optimization glossy reflection glyph GNU goal-directed processing Gödel numbering Gödel’s incompleteness theorems Golay codes golden section search gold master Good–de Bruijn diagram goodness-of-fit test Google gopher Gopher Goppa codes GOTO statement Gouraud shading GP GPIB GPU graceful degradation graded index fibre Gragg’s extrapolation method grammar grandfather file granularity graph graphical device interface graphical kernel system graphical user interface graphic characters graphics graphics adapter graphics image format graphics mode graphics primitive graphics processing unit graphics program graphics tablet graphics workstation graph plotter graph rewrite system gravity field Gray code greatest common divisor greatest lower bound greedy method greeking Green Book Greibach normal form grey importer grey-level array grey-level image greyscale grid Grosch’s law ground term group group code group code recording group graph group mark groupware Grzegorczyk hierarchy gsm mapping guest GUI gulp H2020 hacker hacking Hadamard codes Hadamard matrices half-adder half duplex half-height factor halfplane half subtractor halfsurface halftone half word halt halting problem Hamiltonian cycle Hamming bound Hamming codes Hamming distance Hamming metric Hamming radius Hamming space Hamming sphere Hamming weight hand-held computer handle handshake hands off hands on hang-up Hanoi haptics hard copy hard disk hard return hard-sectored disk hardware hardware character generation hardware circuitry hardware description hardware maintenance hardware reliability hardware security hardwired Harvard Mark I hash function hashing hashing algorithm hash P complete hash search hash table hash total hash value Haskell Hatley–Pirbhai Hayes command set Hayes-compatible hazard hazard and operability study HAZOP HCI HD HDD HD DVD HDLC HDTV head head crash headend header head-mounted display head-per-track drive heap heapsort height height-balanced helical scan help desk help system hemi cube He model Hermite interpolation hertz heuristic heuristic search Hewlett-Packard hex hexadecimal notation hex pad hibernate hidden file hidden-line/hidden-surface removal hidden-line removal hidden-surface removal hidden terminal problem hierarchical addressing hierarchical B-splines hierarchical class structure hierarchical cluster analysis hierarchical communication system hierarchical database system hierarchical data model hierarchical encoding hierarchical memory structure hierarchical radiosity hierarchy hierarchy of functions High-Definition DVD higher-order term high-level design high-level language high-level scheduler highlight highlighting high-order language high-pass filter High Performance File System High Sierra standard highway hill climbing hi res histogram hit rate HLHSR HLS colour model HMD HMI Hoare logic HOL hold time Hollerith, Herman Hollerith code holographic memory holographic scanner home key home page homogeneous coordinates homomorphic image homomorphism HOOD hook into hop HOPE Horizon 2020 horizon effect horizontal check horizontal microinstruction horizontal recording Horn clause Horner’s method host computer hosting host language hot key hot link hotspot hot swapping housekeeping HPF HPFS HP-PA HSI HSV colour model HTML HTTP hub hub polling hue Huffman encoding human-computer interface hybrid computer hybrid integrated circuit hypercube hyperedge hypergraph hyperlink hypermedia hypertext hypertext mark-up language hypertext transfer protocol hypervisor IA5 IAB IANA IAP IAS IAS computer IBG IBM IBM-compatible IBM system 360 IC I2C ICANN ICC ICL icon ICON ICR ICT IDE IDEF idempotent law identification identifier identity burst identity element identity function identity matrix idle time IDMS IDP IEC IEEE IEEE1394 IESG IETF if and only if statement IFE iff IFIP IFS if then else statement IGBT IGES ignore character IH iLink ill-conditioned illegal character illegal instruction ILLIAC IV illumination IMA iMac image image capture image compression image display image file format image grabber image management system image map image processing image tearing image understanding image warping IMAP immediate access store immediate addressing immunization impact printer imperative languages implementation implicant implicit surface implied addressing import list imprecision impulse noise IMS inactive incidence matrix inclusive-OR gate inclusive-OR operation incomplete knowledge-based system incompleteness theorems inconsistent increment incremental backup incremental compaction incremental compiler incremental dump incremental learning indegree indeterminate system index indexed addressing indexed file indexed sequential file index register indicator indirect addressing individual attributes induction industrial robotics Industry Standard Architecture inequality inference inference engine infinite resolution infix notation influence informatics information information and communications technology information destination information engineering information hiding information leak information management system information processing information retrieval information science information sciences information source information storage and retrieval information structure information superhighway information system information systems information technology information theory INFORMIX infrared interface infrastructure-based architecture INGRES inherent addressing inherently ambiguous language inheritance inhibit initial algebra initialization initial-value problem injection inkjet printer in-line function inner code inoculation inorder traversal input input area input device input-limited process input/output insert install instance instantaneously decodable instantiation instruction instruction counter instruction cycle instruction format instruction register instruction repertoire instruction sequencing instruction set instruction stream instrument integer integer programming integer type integral domain integral equation integrated circuit integrated data processing integrated device electronics integrated modular avionics integrated office system integrated services digital network integrated systems factory integration testing integrity integrity level integro-differential equation Intel Intel High Definition Audio Intellect intellectual property intelligent front end intelligent network intelligent terminal intensity interaction interactive interactive development environment interactive graphics interblock gap interface interior node interior path length interlacing interlock intermediate code intermediate storage internal fragmentation internal schema internal sorting Internet Internet access provider Internet address The Anatomy of an Internet Address Internet Architecture Board Internet café Internet Engineering Steering Group Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Explorer Internet Message Access Protocol internet protocol Internet Protocol Security Internet service provider Internet Society internetworking interoperability interpolation interpretation interpreter interpretive language interprocess communication interquartile range interrogation interrupt interrupt-driven interrupt handler interrupt I/O interrupt mask interrupt priority interrupt service routine interrupt vector intersection intersegment linking interval analysis interval timer intranet intrinsic semiconductor invariant inverse inverse homomorphic image inverse matrix inverse power method inverse video inverted file inverter invertible matrix involution operation I/O I/O buffering I/O bus I/O channel I/O control I/O device I/O file I/O instruction I/O-limited I/O mapping ionographic printer IOP I/O port I/O processor I/O register iOS I/O supervisor I/O switching IP iPad IP address IPC IP core iPhone IPL IPO iPod IPSec IPv4 IPv6 IrDa IRQ irradiance irradiance gradient irrecoverable error irreducible polynomial irreflexive relation irreversible encryption IS ISA ISAM ISDN ISF ISO ISO-7 ISOC isolation isoline isolux curves isomorphism ISO/OSI reference model isosurface ISP ISR IT ITA-5 Itanium iterated function system iterated map iteration iterative deepening iterative improvement iterative methods ITron ITSEC ITU ITU-T jackknife Jackson method JANET Jarrot’s method Java JavaBean Java Development Kit JavaScript JavaServer Pages Java Virtual Machine JCL JDK jewel box JIT compiler jitter JK flip-flop job job-control language job file job mix job monitoring Jobs, Steve job scheduling job step job stream Johnson counter join operator Josephson junction Josephson technology journal tape Jovial joystick JPEG JSD JSP JTMP jukebox jump jump instruction junction justify Just-in-time compiler JVM K KADS Kalman filter Kamarkar’s method Karnaugh map kB Kbps KBS Kbyte K-complexity k-connectivity KDC KDD Kerberos Kermit kernel kernel field kerning key keyboard keyboard encoder key frame keypad keypunch keyring drive key sorting keyword keyword parameter Kildall, Gary kill file kilo- Kilostream Klatt synthesizer Kleene closure Kleene-plus Kleene star Kleene’s theorem k lookahead kludge KMP algorithm knapsack problem knot knowledge knowledge acquisition knowledge base knowledge-based system knowledge discovery in databases knowledge elicitation knowledge engineering knowledge engineering toolkits knowledge representation Knuth, Donald E.

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